Twenty Years of Indian Steam

Steaming On  edited by J. L. Singh and Abhimanyu Shaunik; Indian Steam Railway Society, New Delhi; 2017;  pages 230. 

ONE REASON WHY MANI'S VISITS are something to look forward to is that he has been something of a Santa Claus of late. Each time Mani (or Shri Abhimanyu Shaunik, if you like) drops in my hometown, he gets along something that whets my appetite for the railways and its doings. Its amazing to see how it can act as a catalyst in my never ending quest for discovering yet another facet of the Railways of the Raj.

Having dubbed him as Santa, let no one imagine that Mani arrives here at Christmas time dressed in a red cape with white fur trim. Nothing of the kind. Shri Abhimanyu is a top class businessman ; as General Manager of Palas Software Private Limited he is at times required to be on the move, often taking along with him a team of company executives to assist him in his work. Last time he was here he brought along a pair of large coffee mugs imprinted with the Rail Enthusiasts' Society logo. This time it was something more substantial. It was a book called "Steaming On" , a 230 page treatise that would cheer the heart of any steam train buff.

Steaming On couldn't fail to delight me as has every other bit of railway memorabilia Mr Shaunik has got along for me. Here is a book that has not been authored by a single individual ; rather it is a collection of writings that have appeared in the dozen or more issues of the Indian Steam Railway Society's journal. Among its contributors may be found engine drivers and General Managers, writers and photographers, college professors and historians. Each one writes using his own slant, each exhibits his own specialized interest, his own fascination within the limitless vistas of the field known to us by the name of railway heritage.

Consequently, Steaming On is free of the monotony we have come to expect in works authored by a single person. Steaming On is a lively voice, a tremendous entertainment where each piece of writing appears to be elbowing out the others in an effort to get the reader's attention. And what a marvellous collection of topics maybe found here! Here at one end we have the scholarly figure of Ranjit Mathur who sets out the facts and figures pertaining to the varied classes of steam locomotives that once ran on Indian soil. If this sounds too technical, we may skip over pages to find members of the Darjeeling Hill Railway Society chattering excitedly over a rare streamlined baby engine that once made its appearance on the DHR many years ago, while still another is here to tell us of his adventures high up in the hills looking for the grave of his icon, the legendary Barog saab who was assigned the task of building the famed Kalka Simla Railway. There is no lack of variety here. Peter Foster may be heard chirping from afar expresing concern over the government's proposal to rename A. H. Wheeler, while Tathagata Chatterji prefers to pen an ode to the BNR Hotel of Puri. Others like the late Mr Kashyap are more down to earth ; having been a driver himself he finds his supreme pleasure in telling us of the long road to travel before a newcomer to a steam shed could hope to man a mainline express engine. And Siddhartha Joshi and Bharat Vohra -- don't they come across as excited youngsters jumping onto the Frontier Mail hoping to catch a glimpse of the last remnants of steam in Mhow? These two boys are desperate ; they are in earnest, and their enthusiasm spills over into theirs writings.

There are others who seem to be calm and collected as they write their memoirs. I liked Harshvardhan's "The End of an Era" where this veteran enthusiast tells us in his own quiet way the tale of two enginemen he knew. Or yet again, we have the late Mr Sinha taking us back on a nostalgic tour of the days when as a trainee officer on the Indian Railways, he would receive practical training on board the footplate of the mighty engine that pulled the Grand Trunk Express.

The Indian Steam Railway Society has been around for over two decades, a sure haven for all those souls who found India's fast disappearing fleet of steam locomotives gave them cause for distress and anguish. The opening chapter of the book tells the tale of how it all began, how a group of enthusiasts met in a hotel room and decided that something needed to be done to rescue the steam age from slipping away into oblivion unsung. Present amongst the group was Shri Ashwani Lohani, then Director of the National Rail Museum, and a keen heritage enthusiast himself. Under the able leadership of this ambitious and enterprising railwayman, then, was born India's first railway heritage society. It was named the Friends of the National Rail Museum as it was conceived as a group mainly concerned with the preservation of the exhibits at the museum. It soon became apparent, however, that the interests served by the newly formed society were confined to a dismally narrow sphere of activity, and that if the cause of railway heritage was to be furthered, it could only be done effectively through an agency whose professed aims went far beyond those adopted by the FNRM.

Consequently, a few years down the line a new society came into being ; it was named the Indian Steam Railway Society and its objectives were to bring together enthusiasts, disseminate knowlege of railway  heritage and insofar as it was possible, help the railways to see the immense potential that lay in running steam services on its tracks.

Like the FNRM, membership of the newly formed steam society never really swelled to large numbers ; it would always remain a small band of loyal followers who sang their ditties to the rails of old. But the society brought out an adorable four-page newsletter crammed with interesting findings in the world of steam locomotion. There were reports on the latest engines being shunted out of duty, memoirs, technical articles, besides various other pieces dealing with sundry railway memorabilia.

The ISRS newsletter was at this time being edited by Shri Harshvardhan, of whom it has been said that he was the "backbone of the steam preservation movement" in those days. Harshvardhan was a keen aficionado of steam railways, a near authority on all that was happening in the world of steam, and his newsletter kept us pretty well informed of anything that took place worthy of note.

Harshvardhan was a steam engine researcher
and a keen observer of everything
that happened on the steam scenario

At about this time we were also to make a startling discovery ; for the steam railways of India seemed to have cast a spell of charm that went far beyond the geographical boundaries of the country, and there were quite a few living in far away lands who rejoiced, even gloried, in our steam trains. We had David Barrie and Terry Martin of the DHRS arguing persuasively for steam services on the Darjeeling Hill Railway ; there was John King educating us on the varied features of Edmondson tickets to be found in different railway zones across the country ; and who would not be delighted with the memoirs of Reginald Sowler who kept a diary of his rail travels while he served here as a  private in the army during World War II ? 

The railway movement had now begun to gather momentum. Members of the ISRS met together at the National Rail Museum each month, and when November came round, everyone looked forward to a fun-packed 3-day steam convention held at the same venue. When Shri Tathagata Chatterji took over as editor, the society newsletter had grown from a puny four page printed handout to a 12 page publication. The time seemed ripe for better things and the society decided to have a proper magazine befitting its status as the country's premier railway society.

Form of application for membership of the
Indian Steam Railway Society

The "Indian Steam Railways Magazine" got off to a flying start and there were plans initially to sell copies aboard the Rajdhani express trains. It is worth noting that the ISRS magazine was named in tribute to a well respected publication called the Indian State Railways Magazine which thrived in the 1920s and 30s dedicated to railway matters and tourism ; and indeed, the new magazine carried a feature known as the Treasure Hunt which reproduced in facsimile some of the more striking writings from the latter.

For the heritage enthusiast these years were undoubtedly a time of great excitement. Shri Ashwani Lohani's labours had borne fruit resulting in the Fairy Queen being reconditioned to run tourist specials from Delhi to Alwar, and equally significant, Lohani had conceived and directed the transformation of the disused shed in Rewari into a top class steam loco maintenance facility. These remarkable accomplishments would further spur enthusiasm, and the Indian Steam Railways Magazine faithfully reflected the upbeat mood. Besides the usual features a steam glossary was added to the magazine ; this would be in addition to two very pretty features newly introduced, namely, a half-page devoted to rail humour, and a charming little section called "Echoes of the Past" where readers could send in any railway pictures from their personal archives.

Browsing through old issues of the ISRS journals is an enriching experience opening up a window to railwayland when steam led the way in all its might and glory. That glory and splendour have long since vanished never to return, and yet we may think over it in moments of quiet solitude and rejoice. We may inspect what is being done on the preservation front, we can visit railway museums and heritage galleries, take a trip on steam run tourist specials. Or we may turn instead to books devoted to heritage and history to savour the richness of India's steam age.

Steaming On is a delightful compilation of writings that have appeared in the ISRS journals over the past twenty years, and has been prepared with this object in view. Both the opening of the Rewari Steam locoshed and the launch of the Indian Steam Railways Magazine were important events in the history of the ISRS, and in Steaming On we have yet another milestone we can be proud of. 

Some books have a message, others inspire hope. Steaming On seems to do both. As India's steam age drew to a close, it left many distraught, and there were a great many who looked upon the change as a great irreparable loss. To all such folks Steaming On beckons invitingly to share in the adventure. The pretty Darjeeling engine on the front cover speaks to us, inspiring hope : "Never mind what has happened, I will keep Steaming On..."

Ravindra Bhalerao

Portrait of a Model Railway Enthusiast

THE YOUNG LAD STOOD before the towering 'wada' that stood next to his home. He had but to step out of his home to spend an evening with his friends who lived in the wada belonging to Jhandelwal saab. His boyhood was spent in the idyllic surroundings of the wada, amidst cries of play and the long silences of evening.  Today as he gazed up at the palatial home his heart missed a beat. For it was Ganpati Utsav time, and Sitalamata Bazar where he lived was alive with color and excitement. The 'jhankis' or colourful tableaux set up during these days were a great favourite with the kids, but this time Jhandelwal saab had set up the most unusual jhanki in his home. It was a model rail jhanki -- a live exhibition featuring an HO gauge electric train set he had brought from England. How dazzling were the lights shining onto those coloured trains and engines as they playfully purred along on the oval track! It was a show that enthralled both children and grown-ups alike.

The city of Indore where Narsingh Das grew up was a quiet place in those days, a far cry from the malls, the multiplex cinemas and expressways that are now so much a part of city life. Traditionally Indore has been the seat of great cultural activity. The excitement reached a crescendo at Ganpati festival time when a never ending string of performances -- the mushairas, kavi sammelans, and various other programmes were staged by Ganpati Mandals spread across the city. The whole town wore a festive air during those ten memorable days.

A notable feature of the ongoing celebrations was the 'jhanki' -- colourful tableaux done up with great taste, each depicting a theme and lit with bright incandescent lamps. These jhankis were hugely popular and families could be seen strolling at leisure till as late as midnight in the market place moving along from one jhanki to the next.

Growing up in a place so vibrant with art and culture had a decided influence on the young boy. Today as he stood watching the model train staged in Jhandelwal saab's wada he was entranced. The trains, diminutive in size, whizzing along tracks and halting at tiny stations on the way,  captured his imagination as nothing else had done before. Already a train enthusiast, young Narsingh Das was siezed with an irresistible desire. He decided that one day not far in the future he must go on to set up his own model railway show. He would not be a mere spectator, but would own his own model railway and would hold his own shows.

Narsingh Das Bang was but a lad of 15 when he dreamed his great dream. He was born in a business family living in the Sitalamata Bazar area of Indore. His father Shri Ramakishanji Bang was an industrious man who owned a wholesale kirana business in Siyaganj Mandi, a business area of the town. Narsingh Das finished school and went on to join Holkar Science College graduating with a degree in Science in 1966. It was thought that like his brother Narayan Das who held a master's degree in Commerce, Narsingh Das would go on to take higher education but things did not work out as planned and this together with family constraints made the young man abandon plans for further education and instead he joined his father and brothers in the family owned wholesale kirana business. 

Over the next forty years Shri Bang would remain in Indore doing business. His work ethics and fairness in dealings made him a highly respected member of the business community of the town.  During his career as a wholesale merchant he has been the recipient of several honours ; in 1990 he was elected to the much coveted chair of President of the Siyaganj Wholesale Kirana Merchants' Association.

A year after he joined the family business, Narsingh Dasji's world revolved around one overriding concern, and this was to excel in business. The turning point in his life came when his elder brother Purushottamji presented him with a battery operated HO gauge train set made by Crown Railway of Bombay. The year was 1975 and for Narsingh Das it was long cherished dream come true. It was a memorable year in his life.

The train set could not have come at a more opportune moment. It was Ganpati Utsav time and Narsingh Das and his brothers lost no time in setting up their show using a plywood baseboard measuring 6 feet by 12 feet which was erected in front of the home.

It was full fledged tableau. When evening came and the lights were switched on, visitors were delighted to see a colourful panorama of a toy train threading its way through points and crossings, making its way through stations, and rumbling over bridges and viaducts. 

The Crown Railway jhanki held at Ganpati
festival in 1978

The jhanki was a runaway success, drawing 'oohs' and 'aahs' from the crowds who thronged the stall throughout the evening. It was truly a novel idea, for nowhere in town would you come upon a tableau at festival time with a train as its theme.

The model train diorama gave its owner as much pleasure as it did to the visitors to the stall. Narsingh Das Bang's mission was now clear. He knew he must hold his exhibition each year when festival time came round. He would use his model railway both to entertain visitors as well as to impart to them a knowledge of the way a railway was run.

Narsingh Dasji's fascination with staging model rail dioramas has never waned and with each passing year he has added improvements to his layout. Beginning with a Crown Railway train set, he has now moved on to Marklin which is known for its authentic detail and fine workmanship. He now owns an impressive layout in his home complete with figures, homes and streets.

Much of what Shri Bang owns today on his model railway originated in two purchases he made in the early 1980s. He loves to recall how he discovered Marklin : "In 1982 I had been to Bombay where I visited the Crown Railway factory in Andheri and met the owner Mr Ashwin Mehta. Mehta's unit produced battery operated HO gauge train sets copying certain English designs. My meeting with Mehta proved to be fruitful and he soon became a friend. He even gave me a copy of a Marklin model train catalogue he had with him."

The model catalogue deeply impressed Narsingh Das and he began to hope he would be able to get a Marklin train set for himself. Fortune seemed to favour him for barely had a few months passed after his return to Indore when the phone rang in his home. It was Ashwin Mehta on the line and he had good news to share about a Parsi family in Bombay who wished to sell their HO gauge Marklin train layout.

And so Narsingh Dasji found himself in Bombay once again. He visited the Parsi home where he inspected the layout and its rolling stock and locomotives. The model railway seemed to be in good order and he purchased the whole set for a sum of Rs 7000. He was now the proud owner of a top grade HO model railway !

He was now on very close terms with Mehta. "I was new to the world of model railways and Mehta gave me my first lessons in this fascinating hobby," he tells us. "Mehta also gave me addresses of 15 German model train manufacturers. I wrote to all these firms and ordered their catalogues. " 

Correspondence with Germany revealed that Marklin had its distributor in Hong Kong. In 1985 Narsingh Dasji planned a trip that would help him pick out the precise models he was looking for. He had a relation staying in Hong Kong working for the diamond trade with an office in Bombay. He bought $ 3000 from his relation at a rate of Rs 17 per dollar (the exchange rate at that time was only Rs 12). Thus armed with finances Narsingh Dasji was able to make a trip to Hong Kong and finally returned with all the model railway parphernalia he had wished to have.

On his return to India Shri Bang turned his attention to staging shows on a large scale. He was now in possession of an extensive collection featuring both HO and 1 gauge layouts. In 1986 residents of Indore were startled by newspaper reports of a grand model railway exhibition to be held in the Sitalamata Bazar area of the town. This time the jhanki was quite different from the ones he had staged thus far ; it was larger in scale, and it was inaugurated by the Mayor of the city himself in a glittering function attended by prominent citizens and important personalities. "My show was open for the general public for a whole month," remembers Narsingh Dasji. It was a momentous event, one that townsfolk would remember for a long time to come. 'Jhanki wale' they would call him, for Narsingh Dasji had established his reputation as the lovable model railway showman of the town.

The Collector of Sehore at the
rail exhibition
Invitations asking him to stage his shows elsewhere soon began to pour in. "A group of people had arrived in Indore to see the model railway all the way from Sehore," remembers Narsingh Das. "They were greatly pleased with the rail jhanki and asked me if I could arrange a show in their own town."  And so when Navratri came along Narsingh Dasji and his friends packed up their boxes and carried the whole set to Sehore not far from Bhopal for a 10 day show. "Transportation and boarding cost nearly Rs 10,000 which was borne by our hosts," he recalls. "As in Indore, my show here proved to be a popular attraction and the whole town turned up to watch the jhanki. Amongst the visitors was Virendrakumarji Saklecha, a leading politician. Everthing went well as planned and the show turned out to be a grand success."

Shri Bang's Marklin layout created
a sensation in Sehore
Narsingh Dasji Bang is no longer a kirana wholesale merchant  today. This ambitious enterpreneur has moved to Nagpur and is in the manufacturing business. Working in collaboration with his son-in-law, he has factories in Borgaon manufacturing water pipelines and automatic gates used on irrigation dams. Nagpur was home to a rail museum and would open up further avenues for him to put his model railway to good use. "I visited the Narrow Gauge Railway Museum here in Nagpur but although the museum houses an amazing collection, I found there was nothing of railway interest here that would appeal to children," says Bang. What better way of treating youngsters to the joy of model trains than by displaying his layout in a rail museum !

With this thought in mind Narsingh Das went to the Divisional Railway office in Nagpur. He was doubtful if his idea would be received favourably, but when he met the DRM of the S. E. C. Railway and told him of his model railway, he was pleasantly surprised to find the official as enthusiastic over it as he himself was. Official permission was granted and in February 2010 Shri Bang's model room was formally inaugurated in the railway museum. 

Over the next two years Shri Bang's model layout would delight hundreds of visitors arriving at the rail museum of Nagpur. School children loved his trains, and Bang tells us that during the two years he was at the museum, his rail layout was visited by nearly twenty schools.

A dedicated model railway enthusiast, Shri Narsingh Das Bang's vision remains clear as before. Beginning with a Crown Railway train set nearly forty years ago, he has held 10-day rail exhibitions at Ganpati festival each year ever since. The crowds can still be seen thronging his model room in his home at festival time ; school children accompanied by teachers find it a tremendously exciting adventure. And Narsingh Dasji is always present on these occasions to offer instruction in railway operation to eager eyed learners. "My model railway is meant to both educate and entertain," he says.

Shri Narsingh Das Bang may be contacted at the following numbers: 
9423 226 195,  
7020 356 714,  
narsinghdasbang91 AT gmail DOT com

Ravindra Bhalerao

The Master Locomotive Craftsman of India

There is in Iqbal Ahmed's creations a flavour that is reminiscent of applied mechanics in the the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bringing to mind the names of Watt, Cugnot, Henry Ford, Trevithick and others of that time, men whose spirit of adventure and experiment brought about the revolution in industry and transport. We associate that age with clocks and escapements, Hargreaves' spinning jenny, Daguerreotype photographs, and Faraday's discoveries in the science of electricity and magnetism. Iqbal's creations, though sparkling new, hark back to those times. He uses his skills in fine mechanical engineering to create wonders from an age long past, the age when steel was beginning to come into use for ships, when the steam engine was coming into its own, providing the impetus for progress in nearly every other field of endeavour.

That pioneering age of discovery and invention is brought alive when we take a peek into Mr Ahmed's living room. If you wish to relive the age of steam road rollers, beam engines, and early motor cars, a visit to Iqbal's home is recommended. He lives at one end of Residency Road in Nagpur where he has remained busy crafting an amazing variety of mechanical gadgets dating back to the days when the industrial revolution had begun to sweep across the world. And he is willing to let anyone with an interest in vintage machines visit his place and inspect his collection.

There are two things that strike one as being remarkable when we think of Iqbal's creations. To begin with, his workshop is equipped only with a lathe which means that each of his mechanical gadgets has been hand-crafted with the aid of only a single machine tool. Secondly, he has no fascination for static models; he does not believe in creating models only for display. Each of his models is a working piece. Each is capable of performing with effortless ease the task intended for it.

Iqbal has been into constructing steam engines since a long time: stationary steam engines, beam engines, locomotives, road rollers. It is a passion for him and he believes in turning out each piece with perfection. He had his first experience in model building when he constructed a Swiss electric HO gauge train in 1962. This was followed by a palm-sized stationary steam engine a few years later. Knowing about his fascination for working models, friends often give him books on model engine making and loco construction. "Often the dimensions listed in the book would lead to a model too large, so I generally scale down the parts proportionately," he tells us.

While the steam road roller pictured above is large and heavy, his passion for miniaturization led him to build a stationary steam engine so small it could fit onto a thumbnail. When fed with steam from a separate boiler, this engine worked splendidly, and being the smallest engine of its kind in the world, it soon became a celebrity. It earned Iqbal a place in the Guinness Book of World Records as the maker of the world's smallest stationary steam engine.

There are other honours he has received. Although his engine which earned him a place in the Guinness Records is too small to be pictured here in detail, we may inspect his miniature lathe below. He has been regularly entering his miniatures in the Sherline Machinist's Challenge Contest held in the United States, and has been honoured with the Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012 conferred by the Joe Martin Foundation for Exceptional Craftsmanship. His models of a Sherline lathe and milling machines won first and second prizes, a gold medal, citation, as well as a cash award in these contests, and he has been declared as one among the six top craftsmen of the world.

Despite the honors he has received, Iqbal remains a quiet and unassuming person calmly going about his daily pursuits, spending the larger part of the day in his workshop on Residency Road. Amongst his recent creations is a 1:4 size model of a Ford Quadricycle dating back to 1896 complete with carburetor and petrol engine and running on solid rubber tyres ; and an equally fascinating model of a Benz Motor Wagen of 1886, again equipped with both propulsion and steering. Parked in a corner of his living room, one would think these quaint looking automobiles of a bygone age were made to order for a customer, such is the degree of realism and detail he has succeeded in achieving.

The Ford Quadricycle of 1896 is a scaled down version
of the original.

This charming lamp of the Ford Quadricycle was
crafted by Iqbal himself.

Carl Benz Motor Wagen. Iqbal constructed the full engine
for both these motor cars complete with ignition,
carburetor and steering.

Another noteworthy mechanical contrivance crafted by Mr Ahmed in his workshop is the "Mary Beam Engine" we see here, representing an early form of steam engine that was developed and put into use in the 18th century. When Thomas Newcomen devised his beam engine in 1712, it was not his object to arrange for steam powered transport—this would have to wait for another 90 years when Richard Trevithick introduced high pressure steam in a cylinder to propel a road vehicle carrying passengers. Newcomen's engine was large and unwieldy: steam at atmospheric pressure was admitted into a cylinder and allowed to condense. The resulting vacuum caused the piston to move down under the action of atmospheric pressure acting on its top. The slow to-and-fro movement of the piston caused a transverse walking beam to oscillate, imparting its motion to a pump used to empty out water from a coal mine.

The Mary Beam Engine is one of Iqbal's
most charming creations. 
The "Mary Beam Engine", although resembling Newcomen's invention, is not an identical copy, but is based on the modern principle of using steam at pressure in a cylinder, causing the beam to oscillate thereby setting a flywheel into rotation.

Among Iqbal's many creations, "Mary" stands out as a touching example of one of the earliest attempts made by man to employ steam to perform useful work in the service of humankind.

It is going to gladden the heart of any rail heritage enthusiast to know that Mr Ahmed having dabbled all along with loco construction, has gained a remarkable degree of skill in building miniature working steam locomotives from scratch, and is now in a position to fabricate a model locomotive on order for anyone who is keen on possessing one.

Step into Iqbal's home and you will be pleasantly surprised with the sight of two pretty steam locomotives quietly lying side by side on the floor of his living room. The first of these (seen to the right) is a 0-6-0 tank engine, dubbed "Indian Glory", measuring 34 inches in length, 10 inches wide and 14 inches tall. Standing next is the "Fairy Queen" of similar dimensions, being an exact replica of the legendary Fairy Queen 2-2-2 locomotive of 1855 vintage which has been reconditioned to haul tourist specials from Delhi Cantonment to Alwar during the winter months.

Locomotives ready to steam out

Each weighing about 55 kgs, Iqbal's steam locomotives are heavy, and develop enough tractive force to haul along 5 or more adults seated on specially built open cars running on an oval rail track. "When Indian Glory was first built, I was doubtful if it would haul along even a single person, but this engine has amazed us all by its load carrying capacity," he says.

His engines operate optimally within a steam pressure range of 60 - 70 lb/sq.inch, and a safety valve is provided maintaining steam within a safe limit of 120 lb/sq.inch. Each is equipped with a blower, gauge glass, pressure gauge, and cylinder drain cocks. Iqbal's care and attention to detail can be seen in the design of each small part that contributes to the performance of the machine : he provides the piston with a pair of piston rings with gaps staggered to prevent a straight line of escape of steam from one side to another, and his cylinders are kept steam tight with asbestos gland packings. The locomotives work on superheated steam : one large flue tube among 13 smaller smoke tubes provides ample room for the superheater element within, thereby effecting economy in the use of steam.

Both engines are coal fired, the flue gases rising in the firebox and passing through a set of smoke tubes set in a 3.2 mm thick copper boiler. A special pump delivers motor car engine oil to the cylinders for lubrication, whilst an axle pump brought automatically into operation when the engine is set into motion, forces water held in the tank into the boiler, this latter action being capable of being bypassed with a suitably designed valve when the gauge glass shows a full boiler.

Walschaerts valve gear of the Indian Glory locomotive

Fairy Queen, being a scaled down replica of the full-sized engine, employs Stephenson's link motion to actuate the valves. How did Iqbal design Stephenson's motion for his engine? "While at the National Rail Museum of Delhi, I closely studied the working mechanism of the Fairy Queen, and even took photographs. My model is based on these photos and what I learned while at the museum," he tells us. Indian Glory, on the other hand, works on the more familiar Walschaerts valve gear. Both machines use plain D-slide valves with external admission for steam distribution, and are capable of running in both forward and reverse gear.

Iqbal's locomotives have given entirely satisfactory performance until now, and day-long demonstrations have been held at the National Rail Musuem in Delhi, as well as various other venues. Has he ever had occasion to replace a working part of the locomotive? "Wear is minimum here," explains Iqbal. "The cylinder, piston rings, and connecting rod bushes are made of gun metal which is wear resistant. If a connecting rod bush wears away, I only need to replace it with a new one, but so far there has been no need for this. All external working parts are kept well lubricated manually with an oil can before a run."

Perhaps the only thing lacking is the facility for boiler inspection and washout. "From time to time, I clean out the smoke tubes to rid them of the accumulated soot, but there is no way you can open out the boiler for removing scale. All we can do is fill up the boiler and empty its contents through a blow down valve," he says.

And so Iqbal’s collection stands, a poignant reminder of the industrial revolution and of those adventurous times when men were tinkering with mechanical innovations, and physics had begun to unravel the secrets that underlay their successful operation. His hand-crafted miniature models constitute a unique collection that is bound to be of tremendous interest both to steam engine enthusiasts and students of industrial history alike.

Does he have plans to work on any new models? "At the moment, I am preparing a full-size model of the 1886 Benz Motor Wagen," says Iqbal. As for future plans, there are none in sight as yet. "When something interesting presents itself, I will begin to work on it," he says.

Perhaps something interesting will turn up. Having made a great variety of engines both large and small, it is hoped that he will turn his attention in due course to other innovations that made their appearance during the early years of the industrial age. Who knows what lies in store ahead—perhaps one day, Iqbal will surprise us with a model of an early printing press, a spinning jenny, or maybe even Lumiere's kinematograph !

The master craftsman is at work currently on an elecrically
driven locomotive model.

Ravindra Bhalerao

Speed Consistent with Safety

“Speed Consistent With Safety is the Motto of Every Railwayman” was the catchphrase you found on early railway timetables. It was heard so often that it sounded like a cliché, yet it was an all important rule every railwayman had to, and still has to follow.

Another catchphrase was Speed is the Cry of the Day, but Safety First Must be the Paramount Consideration.  The message was blared out on the very first opening page of the Working Timetable of a long time back. And there followed instructions for drivers, guards, station masters, controllers, signal inspectors and other operating staff detailing important procedures which if followed conscientiously would go a long way in ensuring safety.

Here are excerpts from this precious old time table. They give us an idea of what was involved in running trains with speed consistent with safety, which was expected to be the motto of every railwayman.


Here are a few questions based on the most important prevalent causes of accidents. Compliance with the ideas contained in these questions may develop your safety habits.

1.  Do you test the engine automatic vacuum-brake apparatus before leaving the shed and also check the brake-power of your train at the first down gradient to ensure that you have got adequate brake power ?

2.  Do you check before starting that you have got the correct authority to proceed and that correct signals are shown and that the line before you is clear of all visible obstructions ?

3.  Do you exchange signals with the Guard when ---
       a) Starting from a station,
       b) Starting after stopping outside station limits, and,
       c) Running through a station ?

4.  Do you ensure that your train has stopped clear of all fouling marks while stopping at a station ?

5.  Do you anticipate signals presuming they are lowered for you, or keep a sharp look out for signals and remain always vigilant and cautious ?

6.  Do you observe speed restrictions between stations and while entering or passing stations—particularly over loop lines and non-interlocked facing  points ?

7.  Do you make reverse movement over burst points and spring points without the points properly set and secured ?

8.  Do you perform shunting at a station making sure you are in possession of the correct shunting authority, badge, or a written permission of the Station Master on duty, and supervised by an authorized person ?

9.  Do you book repairs of your engine correctly at the end of your run ?

10.  Do you take adequate rest when off duty to be watchful and worthy on duty ?


Here are a few questions based on the most important prevalent causes of accidents. Compliance with the ideas contained in these questions may develop your safety habits

1.  While taking over a train do you ensure that the –

     --Train is properly marshaled and coupled
     --Train the provided with the prescribed brake power
     --Doors of all carriages and wagons are in proper working order and closed and fastened.
     --Train carries all the necessary last-vehicle indicators and brakevan lamps, and that such lamps are lighted and kept burning brightly during the prescribed hours.
     --Train communication between you and Driver is in proper working order, and
     --Generally, as far as you can ascertain, the train is in a state of efficiency for travelling ?

2.  Do you remain vigilant while on the run and exchange signals with your Driver and the Station Master as prescribed by the rules ?

3.  Do you ensure that on arrival at a station the last vehicle of your train clears the fouling marks of all points, crossings and lockbars ? If not, is the Station Master informed at once ?

4.  Do you personally conduct shunting at roadside stations ?

5.  Do you follow the procedure of protecting the train in the block section rigidly when required ?

6.  Do you take adequate rest when off duty to be watchful and worthy on duty ?


1.  Your primary duty is to get trains away with the least possible delay.

2.  Tokens should be sent to the Drivers without delay and shunting to be done should be attended to promptly.

3.  Shunting staff should be kept ready at the point where shunting has to be done, before the arrival of the train.

4.  Particular attention should be paid to signal lamps to see that they are kept burning brightly.

5.  Trains which are arranged to run through stations without stopping should always do so on the straight line. When the straight line is blocked, a train may be passed on the loop at a speed not exceeding 15 km per hour.

6.  Check your clocks daily to ensure that they exhibit the right time.

7.  Packages must be ready in the correct place and loading and unloading done expeditiously.


1.  Stop boards must be kept on for the minimum possible time.

2.  Vacuum test must be carefully and quickly done.

3.  Vacuum brakes must be released whenever an engine is detached from a train.

Amla Junction

Clunk-thud went the ticket dating machine behind the counter. The coins were passed through the window and the man at the head of the queue emerged with a look of relief with two tickets to Itarsi. Next it was the turn of an old lady who wanted a ticket to Maramjhiri. The booking clerk yelled, "Amma, this train won't halt at Maramjhiri. You had better board the Passenger in the evening!"​ The old woman had misjudged the train; she withdrew her coins and turned back looking crestfallen. When my turn came, I found Shivshankar the booking clerk was amused. "How many tickets?" he asked. He knew we rarely bought tickets for any station other than Betul. In Amla, railwaymen and their families were a closely knit community. No one can remain aloof here for long, everyone knows each other. As I counted out the coins, the booking clerk drew out four card tickets. Four times the machine went clunk-thud before the tickets were passed on through the window.

Brave little card tickets! As children we collected these bits of pasteboard, played games with them, built pyramids reaching to the skies only to be toppled over by the slightest breeze that came in through the window. I have several of these pretty railway tickets lying around the home to this day :

Amla Junction - Betul
Itarsi - Amla Jn
Itarsi Junction – Khandwa

Back in those days the ticket machine behind the window was a mystery for me. I could only look upon it as a printing press in miniature which printed out the names of the starting station and destination. I was dismally wrong. The mystery was cleared when we boys trooped into the booking office one day. Shivshankar knew the gang collected card tickets, and he was careful not to let us have access to his ticket tube. This was a small wooden cupboard with pigeon-hole partitions carrying stacks of tickets for various destinations. We discovered the tickets already had the names of the stations printed together with the fare. Shivshankar's ticket machine merely served to emboss the date of issue on the piece of card.

So here we were at Amla station on a lazy summer’s day, Abhay and I, with cousin Nidhi and mother alongside, with tickets to Betul. Despite mother's stern warnings, we walked over to the edge of the platform and craned our necks. The tracks gleamed in the sun, and some distance away, a row of carriages could be seen stabled on a line. At any moment we could expect to see a smoke billowing engine pulling into the station bringing the train along with it. I can still remember these trips to Betul as a regular feature during our stay in Amla. Mother had a sister staying in Betul, and she would pack up a few things and take us along to spend a day with Supriya aunty. Sometimes we would watch a movie while in Betul, or indulge in a bit of shopping. For lower middle and poor class folks, the district place of Betul provided all the trimmings anyone could dream of.

Forty minutes later, we had alighted from the train at Betul, and boarded a rickshaw that would take us to aunt Supriya's home deep within the town. These family gatherings were a great event; mother and her sister would take to a charpoy spending hours reminiscing over the month's events, and exchanging the latest family news. While the elders were deep in conversation, we kids were left to our own devices. Bholu, Abhay and I, and Nidhi and little Sonam took to the outdoors. Next to the home was an old tree with gnarled branches, and Abhay and I took turns to the climb up the tree while little Sonam , full of delight, cheered from below. At other times we played with a ball. Then came lunchtime. Aunt Supriya made us sit in a row, and served dal, chawal, aloo subzi and achar. The Sunday lunch was always followed by bundi-ke-laddoo, so tempting, and so very sweet to the taste.

There were things to be bought and we would make our way to the bazaar to buy a hurricane lantern, a new baba-suit for Abhay, or a box of colour pencils. The afternoon went by dreamily with more gossip of the elders, and more games for the kids till it was time for us to prepare to leave. A day well spent brings a glow of satisfaction, and mother would pack up her bags for the return journey. Travelling back by rail would have meant a long wait at the station late in the evening, so we often took a bus instead. A two-hourly bus service run by a private operator provided reliable transport between the two towns, and for most residents of Amla this was the preferred mode of transport.

As boys our days were spent in pleasant, idyllic surroundings with the railway an ever present influence permeating our lives. Amla was a not-too-important junction ​20 kilometers from Betul, and midway between Itarsi and Nagpur. Here father worked in the Parcel Booking Office. The actual parcel traffic for Amla town was small, but there were a sizeable number coming from various places and bound for Chhindwara. Father and his men would unload these parcels from incoming trains and after duly entering records, would load them into parcel vans of passenger trains for nearby Parasia. The little goods office at Amla station did brisk business most of the time. 

Amla had a goods yard and locomotive shed ; it was the seat of an Air Force unit, and a branch line took off from the station leading to Parasia close to the district town of Chhindwara. All this meant that every train, no matter how important, would halt at this little junction. The Grand Trunk Express halted here as did the Dakshin Express. And so did the Jammu Tawi - Madras Janata Express.

The station ​consisted of two island platforms, one of which carried the main station building, with access to the rickshaw stand by a foot overbridge. On this platform could be found the station master's office, the parcel booking office, a canteen, waiting room, and the train examiner's room and train lighting section. Next to the station master's office was a row of fire-buckets, a necessity at every railway station, the bright red adding a cheerful dash of colour to the station. Sawarkar's refreshment stall did brisk business when a train arrived; he would serve aloo-bondas, coffee, and idli-sambar to hungry passengers eager for a quick bite. Close by hung a huge clock which always had a solemn air about it as it looked down from its lofty perch. Posters could be seen hung at intervals brightening up the station with their pictures : This is your railway—help to keep it clean, said one, while another exhorted, Avoid haste at level crossings...

​We lived in the railway colony where gangmen's quarters and those of other Grade D employees were laid out in rows. It was here that we lived and played and grew up. The boys - there were eight in my group - saved up pocket money to spend on roasted peanuts when the mumfali-wala came round pushing his handcart. A fifty gram paper cone held enough peanuts for a boy's evening treat, and we would sometimes stroll into the station, each holding his cone carefully. The shells had to be tossed away over the track, but one day two of my companions decided the platform was as good a place as any to toss away roasted groundnut shells. Amidst a constant stream of idle chatter and laughs we kept munching away until our paper cones were emptied of their contents and a pile of shells lay strewn at our feet. I looked down at the mess we had made; it somehow just didn't look right. It looked disturbing. It was not quite the proper thing to do, and I am sure the boys were debating in their minds on what to do next. Just then a sharp yell was heard coming from down the platform. We turned and found the station jamadar charging at us, letting out a stream of choice words. We had done wrong and were guilty. We took to our heels !

Winter came along and it was freezing cold in Amla, time to get into our sweaters and mufflers. Often an engine would be seen standing in the yard nearby and the good mothers of the colony, with small buckets in hand, would go to fetch garam pani -- waste water which the driver did not need anyway, and which was such a luxury, indeed a blessing for us in the winter months. Womenfolk could also be seen scavenging the track collecting as they went along bits of coal and unburnt cinder which was loaded into a small sack to be brought home as a prized find. I had accompanied mother on several such expeditions. I soon made the discovery that with some patience and a willingness to explore, it was possible to recover a good amount of cinder -- cinder that was destined for the sigri at home where it would give up the last remnants of its heating value and help ease the burden of the monthly fuel bill.

Diwali brought along with it school holidays, and was always a time of great fun and merriment. There would be firecrackers and sparklers, and homes everywhere were lighted up with diyas, tiny clay bowls with a lighted wick dipping in oil. A Durga Pooja had been organized by a resident of the colony and the boys volunteered to help. It was exciting to be a part of the organizing team. The very first task assigned to us was a manual job containing an element of risk. A two feet high murti weighing several kilos had arrived by rickshaw at a place across the railway and we were asked to fetch the murti and install it in Somnath's home. 

The boys-- there were eight of us--heaved and panted and amidst cries of “Are, samhal ke...” the murti was unloaded from the rickshaw. It was a prettily made idol. The colours were breathtaking, so bright and eye-catching, with sunlight glinting off the corners. As the rickshaw moved away, we stood admiring this work of art. The men who had crafted this object of beauty must have been truly skilled artists, we thought.

But there was work to do ahead. As we stood by the tracks, Dakshin Express steamed out of the station with a great clatter and din. On the loop stood a goods train, the long line of 4-wheeled wagons stretching away in each direction to infinity. The obstruction was immovable; it was static and would not move out for ages, we knew. Carrying the murti to the lineside quarters across the yard would involve an arduous trek along the tracks, make a U turn around the stationary train, and carry the fragile load the same distance back. We shuddered at the thought of performing this herculean feat.

If railwaymen are known to extend a courtesy to a soul in need, they are also known to be ingenious in working out a solution to a problem. As we stood with the murti, looking around in dismay, an engine was seen about fifty meters away letting out steam idly as it stood awaiting orders for shunting. Three of us strode up to the locomotive. There was no one in the cab but we found the fireman and driver standing next to a coupled brake van with pointsman Malwe standing beside. We walked up to the men and explained the matter, hoping that they would agree to shunt the train out of the way. After a bit of deliberation amongst themselves, the matter was finally settled. Without a shunting order, the goods train could not be touched; but there was nothing to stop them from arranging transport using engine power. True, it was against the rules, but a certain amount of ‘amicable working’ or cooperation would do no harm. It was an accepted part of railway working.

And so it was that goddess Durga seated atop a striped tiger found a place on the goods brake behind an engine on that day. We clambered onto the brake and with a merry whistle, and amidst clouds of steam heralding this singular event, we set off. The engine steamed on steadily till we were past the stationary goods train and beyond the trailing points. Here we slowed down and halted. Malwe got off the brake, the points were reversed, and we began our journey back, this time taking the line that ran next to the gangmen's quarters, bypassing the stubborn line of wagons that had refused to budge.

Word quickly spread in the colony : goddess Durga has arrived by train, they said. It left behind a lasting impression on me. To a little boy's mind it was a day of victory. It was a day which saw the most unusual consignment being transported in the most innovative way.

Although a junction of medium size, Amla doubled as a train examining station. Other than the customary checks, one of the most important tasks of the Train Examiner here was to check the brakes on the train. The procedure was crucial ; no train was allowed to leave Amla unless the TXR had satisfied himself that it possessed enough brake power. The reason for this is not hard to find : close to Amla lay Betul, and a bare 9 kilometers ahead was the awesome Maramjhiri - Dharakoh ghat with the line winding its way through wooded hills in a steep downward gradient. Allowed to roll down on its own, a train would acquire a dangerously high speed, so brake power was all important--even more important here than engine hauling power.

If travelling down the Maramjhiri grade was fun, a train ride up through the ghat was even more fun; it was exciting to have a extra engine pushing the train from the back. Here we were at Ghoradongri station one day, some 15 kilometers short of the ghat with the slow Passenger train showing no signs of wanting to move on. A tiny country station, Ghoradongri was provided with a small yard with space enough to hold two or more full length goods trains and sundry wagons besides. The first sight that met my eye when we pulled into Ghoradongri was a steam engine standing in readiness in the yard. I was to discover later that no train could make the grade that lied ahead with a single locomotive, so a banking engine was stationed here for good, to assist trains up the ghat.

The Nagpur Passenger halted long enough for my father to alight and have a leisurely chat with the station staff. Finally after an unbearable delay, the loco stabled in the yard gave a hoot, and moving from its line, came over and took charge at the rear of our train. And thus began the most pleasurable train ride I have ever had. Huffing and puffing all along the way, the two engines laboured, one pulling, the other pushing ; together they had might enough to carry the train up the slope, a 12 kilometer stretch of track winding its way through a delightful panorama of low lying hills, valleys, viaducts, and tunnels.

The pleasure of having an engine at the rear pushing us up the gradient was short lived though, for in about an hour's time, Maramjhiri was reached and here the banking engine was detached from the train. With assistance no longer needed as the track henceforth was level, it would be sent down to Ghoradongri where it would be kept in steam awaiting the next train it had to push up the incline.

Ravindra Bhalerao
Fiction based on real life incidents
narrated by railwaymen.